Sheffield’s Heritage. A matter of Life and Death?

Meersbrook Hall HODHappy New Year.

To say 2020 is going to be a challenging year is probably an understatement as EU funding stops on many local projects, council funding drops still further, and our council’s relationship with National heritage funders shaky to say the least.

Communities are losing their anchorage points, the distinctive character of their area, and their safe community spaces, leaving people feeling angry, frustrated and disorientated. Often only a few buildings remain as a reminder of the origins of their neighbourhood, and most of them are in public ownership. This causes problems for the local population that seems to have been ignored by planners and local authorities. Too often those that complain about their local historic buildings being demolished are seen as Luddites with no real understanding of where priorities should lie.  But all people, whatever their income, need a central focus in their communities, a rallying point.

Abbeyfield House with creeper.JPG

Nationally over 4’000 publicly owned buildings and spaces are being sold off every year.  Research indicates that the inclusion of a well used community building is important to the local population’s  health and social cohesion.  When social cohesion is poor, people reduce the time they spend in public settings and stay in their “safe houses”. Social networks weaken. Crime rises. People grow more isolated. Distrust rises and civic participation wanes.


Nine million people in the UK suffer from loneliness. Loneliness is linked to early deaths, an increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke; depression, and Alzheimer’s. Lonely older people are 1.8 times more likely to visit their GP, 1.6 times more likely to visit A&E and 3.5 times more likely to enter local authority-funded residential care, costing health and social care services over £6’000 per person over 10 years.


The links to youth violence rests on the youth’s perception on the degree of safety, social stability and social cohesion that exists within the immediate community. In other words the young  need a strong social infrastructure yet Councils have closed more than 500 children’s centres since 2010.  The closure of youth clubs over the past few years combines with a battery of cuts to youth services that have left disadvantaged teenagers isolated as the centres lay derelict or sold off to private developers. All these cuts coupled with drop in income in already deprived areas has meant that people have no area to meet. People don’t get to know who lives in their neighbourhood. No one knocks on the door if they haven’t seen them for some time. No one offers a lonely teenager a kind word.


Sheffield is a tough city and has learnt to take the blows and fight back. In many old buildings the community is busy working with people on fighting knife crime, combating loneliness, being creative, educational, improving lifestyles, and just having fun. I have walked into several and the atmosphere is always magic. Its positive and its vibrant. Across the city heritage mainly Council owned have become of central importance to the community. Meersbrook Hall, Bishops House, Abbeyfield House, Birley Spa, Wardsend Cemetery and the General Cemetery.


But they are all under threat as they have no legal standing in the buildings. Many are in effect squatting, even though they are working  in partnership with organisations such as social services, GPs and WEA. At any time the Council could close them down. This seriously limits the groups’ fundraising abilities. The refusal by the Council to allow Community asset transfer or long term leases may result in the collapse of many organisations and the social care they provide, which in a time of serious underfunding seems incomprehensible. To give control to community organisations would save the Council money on running costs and repairs. Research shows that community enterprises have a high rate of success. So have to ask why is Sheffield Council determined to sell off to private developers with no known track record and who are statistically more likely to fail than community organisations?

Samuel Worth Chapel.JPG

Sheffield’s Core Strategy states the Council’s objective of preserving and enhancing buildings and areas that are attractive, distinctive or of heritage value. But what is of heritage value? Historic England cites that for a building to be listed it has to be of a specific architectural or historic interest of national interest. Industrial Heritage and worker’s accommodation was and still is very much considered of low status when it comes to financial support. Recently the Government granted £7.6m to the Wentworth Woodhouse stately home, whereas most grants rarely reach the £1m level in South Yorkshire. National survey data for England shows that even before the main impact of austerity, community organisations in the coalfields reported that they were seriously underfunded.  There would appear to be a cultural snobbery that even local councillors are infected with, and that is that Northern working culture and heritage is not worth as much as preserving wealthy people’s homes. This lack of pride in our local distinctive culture in turn devalues the people whose history it represents.


One problem is there has been no clear value placed on the value of such heritage assets from a health and crime reduction point of view, so it is hard to compare the monetary value of selling off or demolishing and building on the site with the community value. The Council’s attitude to heritage would seem to be that heritage is an eyesore, and that conservation areas are a block to regeneration.


In last few years we have seen the Council permit the demolition of a the listed Jessop wing despite its importance to women’s history and the thousands of ordinary Sheffielders born there. Also the loss of the interior of a hotel important to world soccer’s history. Much of the waterways industrial archaeology is disappearing without comment. Several heritage buildings are in danger of being demolished, façaded or interiors gutted, so no real heritage connections are left for people to feel and respond to. This makes no sense environmentally, or economically or considers the importance people attach to heritage. Not just local people but tourists. The closure of the Tourist office speaks volumes as to how councillors see Sheffield’s tourism potential. As Sheffield’s Museums and Galleries struggle to survive financially it has to be asked how the Council foresees their survival without the increase in revenues that tourism brings.


The potential change of governance in Sheffield’s Council gives hope to many that the present narrow view of community involvement, regeneration and heritage caused by decision making being done by a handful of councillors, who due to staffing cuts lack expert advice. It has led to many quick fix solutions being passed in planning, and also re council owned buildings, without consideration of the long term consequences or consultation of experts within the community.  There has been a marked tendency to compartmentalise community, health and wellbeing, crime prevention, regeneration and heritage into separate boxes. That is proving disastrous for our city.


With the hardships our city faces we cannot afford to bulldoze the assets we have and to kill off our community projects, and along with it quite possibly our vulnerable people. We need to take a stand to protect our community resources and our city’s resources. To encourage tourism and investment from people who want to live in the city because of its communities and heritage.  We need to get together and push for change.

Town Hall Peace Gardens.JPG


Calling all Heritage Lovers

Heritage Strategy Workshops

As you’ll know, two years ago Joined Up Heritage produced the first-ever Framework for a Heritage Strategy for the city. This was, by design, a real community-based project. The Framework emerged from a series of workshops and consultations with heritage community groups and interested individuals all over the city and we are proud to have a Framework developed in this way.

JUHS is now able to move forward to develop the Heritage Strategy itself, and an Action Plan to go with it. The aim is the same – to produce a distinctively Sheffield strategy that’s created by and in the city, not imposed on it from the top. This will be a unique exercise, unlike anything else that’s happened anywhere else in this country (and we hope it will be a model for other places that want to engage all their communities in heritage).

Our target for launching Sheffield’s first-ever Heritage Strategy is March 2020. There’s much to do before then and JUHS is keen to encourage people and organisations to get involved and have their say. For a start, we have organised three workshops for October and you are cordially invited to attend. They will take place on these dates:

Saturday 19 October, from 10.30 am to 1.15 pm

Wednesday 23 October, from 1.15 to 4.15 pm

Tuesday 29 October, from 1.15 to 4.15 pm

They will all take place at the Friends’ Meeting House, St James’s Street, city centre (near the Cathedral).

The workshops are of course free to attend but we do ask you to book on Eventbrite (look for ‘Heritage Strategy Workshop’). If you experience any problems with that please contact Valerie Bayliss at or phone her on 0114 230 7693. We hope that as many JUHS supporters as possible will come along – we really want your input.

Following the workshops there will be very wide consultations over the winter on a draft strategy before the text is finalised ready for launch next March. You can also make an input at any time via or

Recognising our History


Old Town Hall Waingate

Shall this state of things continue to exist—or rather say, shall we proceed from bad to worse, until all are plunged into irretrievable.”  Ann Harrison Chartist 1842                          

I remember the first time I saw the old town hall. I was on my way to the market and I saw the marble basin of a drinks fountain and thought the building has to have been an important public building. I asked my husband what it was as he is a Sheffielder and he just shrugged and said he didn’t know. I suppose most people in Sheffield either didn’t know about the old Town Hall or it had slipped away from their consciousness.

But here the old Town Hall stood neglected, forgotten and has in my mind become the symbol of Sheffield’s lack of self knowledge and how Sheffield town became Sheffield city.

Sheffield doesn’t have many large important buildings in the Town centre. It is not like the wealthy cloth towns of Leeds or Manchester with huge mills, warehouses and merchants houses. It also became a city much later than many so a building as substantial as the Old Town Hall is rare, almost unique in the city especially given the age of the original building by one of the most prestigious architects of the time. But historically this building is unique. Nowhere else can contain within its history the growth from Town Burghess to Sheffield Corporation, from no MPs to parliamentary representation. Also the history of the activism and protest, and disaster and sorrows.

The Town Hall was the focus of many protests.

In 1812, a Luddite-inspired protest led by a file cutter’s wife from Coal Pit Lane (now Cambridge Street) attacked the Town Hall. The magistrates convicted her of theft and jailed her for a few months in Wakefield prison. Perhaps they went easy because some of the Militia joined the protesters.

In 1816 one Thomas Blackwell, carrying a pole with a bloodstained loaf and a banner saying ‘Bread or Blood’, led a rebellious crowd to the Town Hall. He was arrested and imprisoned at York. The following year, 6 men were arrested and detained in the cells accused of High Treason by planning to attack a major armoury in Doncaster and Wentworth House. The magistrates doubted there was a case because a government agent had apparently stirred the men up; they were never brought to trial.

Then in 1820 Blackwell was back, leading 200 men to the Town Hall. A shot was fired but the crowd dispersed and the next day he was arrested and back in jail in York. Blackwell later died in the workhouse.

In December 1832 the first election for Sheffield MPs was held, following the 1832 Reform Act. Tempers flared as badly organised polling resulted in polling being taken twice and the initial loser winning. The crowd started stoning anyone wearing his colours. The magistrates fled to the Town Hall to read the Riot Act but were met by a hail of stones. After the special constables and the local militia failed to calm things down the magistrates called in the Yeomanry who came in shooting, killing 5 demonstrators including 2 teenage boys. The bodies were laid out in the Town Hall for an inquest to be held. The verdict was justifiable homicide.

In following years political agitation grew as the Chartist movement spread across the country; their main demand was for votes for all (they meant men). After failing to get Parliament to listen to them some Chartists decided peaceful protest was not enough. In Sheffield, Chartists planned to take over the Town Hall. On 12 January 1840 six men, betrayed by an informant, found themselves in its cells instead, and facing the magistrates. Their leader Samuel Holberry later died in York prison; his funeral at Sheffield’s General Cemetery drew a huge crowd.

Election riots carried on over the years – 1865, 1874, 1879, 1880 and 1920. In 1925 in echoes of previous riots Communist Party supporters attempted to storm the Old Town Hall and the nearby police station and were fought off by baton wielding policemen.

In 1984 following the “Battle of Orgreave” in the miners’ strike, 71 miners were charged with riot and 24 with violent disorder. Their trial in the Old Town Hall collapsed in the face of unreliable evidence.

The Town Hall was also the centre of great tragedies. In 1832 the police who were stationed in the Old Town Hall had the task of quarantining homes in the town as Cholera swept through the town and also supervising burials in the area now marked by the Cholera monument. In 1864 the Town Hall became a refuge for flood victims clustering round the fireplaces while the police tried to rescue flood victims and then retrieve the bodies to lay out in the workhouse till identified. It was also the place where the inquest into the flood disaster was held and where compensation claims were heard.  It was also in the cellars of the old town hall that the defence of the city during the blitz was centred.

So there it stands once the centre of civil support and authority. The birthplace of the police force, the municipal authority, the target of civil unrest and the struggle for freedom justice and the emancipation of the common people. Hard to find a more important building in our history. Our history not the history of kings and queens but the history of the people who created and still are creating Sheffield’s story. What is the future for this monument to our history? Is it to fade away into some commercial but thoughtless redevelopment. Will any member of the public be able to enter a cell and see in their minds eye Samuel Holberry, the chartist, waiting to be put in front of the Magistrates, or the murderer Charles Peace. To stand in the court and imagine the Orgreave miners, nervous confused and angry and later jubilant. So much of Sheffield’s historic buildings are gutted, remodelled till all traces of the past is either sanitised or lost. I hope this doesn’t happen to the old Town Hall in the rush to redevelop Castlegate. But after the cancellation of the public consultation. And looking at the potential demolition of the Coroners court it is hard to be convinced there is an understanding what heritage means to the city and to the history of the common people.     

Statement re Birley Spa


Why we need Birley Spa to remain in the community.

Sheffield Council is planning to sell Birley Spa to a private buyer to be turned into a private dwelling or offices. Quite apart from the fact that for the first time in 177 years the Spa will no longer be available to the public and it is unknown what the  impact of severing it from the  public park and ancient woodlands is, there are other consequences regarding ignoring the community in favour of private business.  It puts paid to any chance for the people of Birley to take charge and to use the Spar and grounds to improve the health and morale of the community

Birley could certainly do with a healthier lifestyle, as it is an area where relatively poor diet and lower than average levels of physical activity is reflected in highest levels of obesity in Sheffield leading to diabetes, heart disease, cancers, arthritis and depression. This is reflected in Birley’s average lifespan is shorter than elsewhere the city and 20 years shorter than National average.

There are approximately 841 households with older people living on their own in Birley with a high proportion of older and less well off people with existing health conditions. It has been calculated that each older lonely person could cost health and social care services up to £6,000 over 10 years. Lonely older people are 1.8 times more likely to visit their GP, 1.6 times more likely to visit A&E and 3.5 times more likely to enter local authority funded residential care.  It’s also linked an increased risk of Alzheimer’s.

Nationally GPs  are seeing a sharp rise in under 16s  seeking help for conditions such as depression and anxiety. Indications are that children from lower income families are more likely to be isolated with low self esteem and fewer opportunities to socialise outside school. Almost 25% of children in Sheffield are living in poverty, compared to the UK average of 20%.

Educational attainment levels in first years in Birley are in line with the rest of the city but start to drop till they are the worst in the city.  Since educational attainment correlates strongly with health in later life, this too is important when considering the health of the area.

The Friends of Birley Spa solution is to draw on the assets of the Spa and the adjoining park and woodland in conjunction with partners to emphasise health and wellbeing.

A secondary focus is on education. On the Adult front the WEA is already keen to take classes there. There are two schools within close proximity of the Spa. Though not a money making activity research has found outdoor learning can raise children’s attainment levels and leads to them being more engaged, attentive, self-motivated and disciplined. Connecting to with the teaching syllabus looking at local history of the area is a way of creating local pride in the area they live in.

It is hard to conceive how changing the use of the Spa building and removing it from public use can have anything but a negative impact on a beleaguered Birley and stifle the ability of the community to self improve. The Friends of Birley Spa’s plan is quite frankly the best plan there has been in Birley for a number of years to improve the health and education of the local community and is likely to have a bigger impact than any top down approach from the Council. It is ironic that Friends of Birley Spa may have to cancel their contribution to Heritage Open Day considering the theme of HOD this year is people power.


Know Your Place



Meersbrook Hall, Meersbrook Park

‘To be human is to live in a world that is filled with significant places: to be human is to have and know your place.’  (Edward Relph, Place and Placelessness, 1976)

There is a lot of talk about resilient economies by organisations such as ICLEI (Local governments for sustainability). Economies that can weather the storms both literally, such as flooding and storm damage  and financially such as recession and changes in the world economy.  But economies are made of people and in the lower income groups their ability to weather the storm is fast being eroded in ways that limit their ability to function as a member of a community.  Over the years many initiatives have been funded to fight inequalities in our northern cities.  Yet despite efforts the same areas remain areas of high deprivation and often crime. Some have had problems for so many decades many of the earlier residents have died or moved so it has to be something beyond who lives there.  A common factor is of course low wages, and high reliance on benefits.

On the face of it  selling a community asset  seems like an inconsequential act, possibly even a sensible way of conserving resources, but research from a variety of sources suggests any money “saved” by selling it may result in rise in costs elsewhere both tangible and intangible.

My own interest was sparked by a lecture streamed from the RSA given by Eric Klinenberg. Having studied community involvement with  heritage I have come to the conclusion that morale can be helped by the existence of heritage buildings or damaged when historic buildings are lost to a private developer, or worse, demolished. So many of the buildings are built in the centre of communities and are often the heart of the community.

Although some of  these examples are Sheffield related, I don’t think the main focus of the argument is, though some of the financial concerns are specific to the North of England. The argument is not purely about preserving heritage but also, I think,  why we need local authorities to have a holistic view of any decisions they make.

Common Ground

“  Today , societies around the world are becoming more fragmented, divided, and conflicted. The social glue has become undone.” Eric Klinenberg 1

In 1791 the people of Sheffield rioted, releasing people from the debtors prison, attacking the Rev. Wilkinson’s house and setting fire to his haystacks. Wilkinson was a major landowner and a magistrate. The enclosure act that they were protesting about enclosed the common land and left the ordinary people with nowhere they had a right to be. The riot of 1791 was the beginning of unrest in the city and throughout the country for a number of years. 2

Across the country decisions in local councils are having a cumulative impact that could have as lasting a mark on the poor as the Inclosure Act.  For those on lower income public spaces and buildings are the only places they have legal rights to be there.  In the case of historic buildings and sites it also incorporates a history of people like themselves that goes back generations for some, quite possibly the only place their history is preserved.

In June 2018 Locality reported that they had found that more than 4,000 publicly owned buildings and spaces are being sold off every year across England. These are such as parks, libraries, town halls and swimming pools. Many are being lost to private developers. Locality reported that a consistently high number of public buildings and spaces have been sold each year in England from 2012 to 2016.3

Around twenty Anglican Churches close each year, with the figures for non denominational churches considerably higher 4. One in four of South Yorkshire’s working men clubs have closed. In Sheffield in the last two years, five former clubs have closed. Across the country  the number of working men’s clubs have fallen from 4,000 in the 1970s to around 1.500 today.5

The Campaign for Real Ale said that many areas are losing their local pub with 467 closures across the UK in the first six months of 2018. Four out of five people have seen a pub shut down within five miles of their home in the last five years. 6

Carbrook Hall

Carbrook Hall formerly used as community pub now part of Coffee Chain.


Over the years because of changes made many community schools were closed as pupils were moved elsewhere and some were converted to flats or for business use.   Councils have also closed more than 500 children’s centres since 20107. The closure of many youth clubs over the past few years combined with a battery of cuts to youth services have left disadvantaged teenagers idle and isolated as the centres lie derelict or are sold off to private developers 8  Adolescent mental health services and career advice has also been cut throughout England combined with the rise in expulsions from schools 10 it must be hard for many  young people not to feel  abandoned. 

2,000 villages are classified as unsuitable for new housing because of the lack of a local pub or somewhere the community can meet together.11  Cuts to public transport has left many areas both rural and urban without adequate transport. 12

In industrial areas, changes within the steel industry and related trades and closures to coal mines have had a major impact on local communities as large local employers have gone from many areas and previous works have been demolished. Only a few buildings remain as a reminder of the origins of their neighbourhood, and most of these are public buildings or in public ownership.


Birley Spa presently under threat of sale.

Communities are losing their anchorage points and the distinctive character of their area, leaving people feeling angry, frustrated and disorientated. They are losing the familiar and safe community gathering points.  They may not be burning haystacks but there are signs of unrest.

Social Exclusion

In their report of 2018 the Sheffield City Partnership say, “Inclusive growth in a city is dependent on the health and wellbeing of the population since they are the principal  component of the economic  infrastructure.” 13 Health and wellbeing is dependent on not being excluded, but inclusion is not a simple matter of more jobs and better wages.

Power and Wilson (2000)14 describe social exclusion as a tendency to push vulnerable and difficult people into the least popular places. But as shown by the selling off of a pub and the church in a rural village social exclusion can happen in any area. The great divide is between those who are rich enough and fit enough to drive and those too poor to even use public transport if it is available. Social life within the community is based on who has a big enough house to invite others to visit and who they are willing to invite.

Neighbourhoods can break down if the three elements – home, services, and environment  are disrupted to a point where a feeling of security and familiarity in their neighbourhood   disintegrates.  In some areas the disintegration may not be so obvious but still has an impact.  In the old village communities even within the city there may be some that are experiencing mental health problems and chronic loneliness.

The environment you grow up in has an impact. Findings on children growing up in social housing, and children of similar income and social hardships, that children from Social Housing had a distinct disadvantage in future outcomes such as  qualifications , employment, depressive illnesses, and poor self esteem. So exclusion is not purely down to social disadvantage, but where you live. Research mainly from outside the UK would suggest that ways in which young people’s peer groups, social networks and social capital (the networks of relationships among people who live and work in a particular society) as well as local norms and expectations and the social practical support available to families, can influence children and their life chances. 15 Research in Canada would also seem to back the idea that where youths  live is a big factor in whether youths turn to knife crime. Social deprivation may be a contributing factor but social environment definitely matters. 16


Abbeyfield House, Abbeyfield Park, Pitsmoor in partial community use.

In 1995 there was a heatwave  in Chicago that caused  739 deaths 17. Researchers comparing death rates in different neighbourhoods, which to all appearances were matched in levels of high deprivation, found some surprising results. It became apparent that there was something more to who died than whether they were wealthy  enough to afford an air conditioning unit. Areas that were identical in levels of high deprivation differed in how many people survived the heat. This set Eric Klinenberg, a sociologist wondering what could account for this marked difference.

It became obvious that the major difference was closer knit communities were used to checking in on each other and had busier street scene. After many of research the years Klinenberg 1 has drawn the conclusion that the layout of an area and the inclusion of a well used community building such as a library had a whole series of advantages for the local population including better health and  it has long been understood that social cohesion develops through repeated human interaction and joint participation in shared projects, not merely from a principled commitment to abstract values and beliefs. The social and physical environment shapes our behaviour, helps make us who we are and determines our lifestyle .  Klinenberg says that although solid infrastructures such as public transport are important, more important to the success of a community is the social infrastructure which  determines whether social capital develops.

He defines as social infrastructure public institutions such as libraries, swimming pools, athletic fields, playgrounds, parks and other green spaces that people can use freely. Community organisations including churches and civic associations act as social infrastructures when they have an established physical space where people can assemble. Commercial establishments can also be an important part of the social infrastructure, particularly when they operate as “third spaces” places  (such as cafes, hairdressers, post offices and bookstores )where people are welcome to congregate and linger regardless of what they’ve purchased.


Walkley Carnegie Library seeking commercial partnership.

When social infrastructure is robust, it  encourages mutual support and collaboration among friends and neighbours. When degraded, it inhibits social activity, leaving families and individuals to fend for themselves. Social infrastructure is vitally important, because local, face to face recurrent interactions are how communities are built.

The components of social infrastructure rarely crash as completely or as visibly as a fallen bridge and their breakdowns don’t result in immediate system failures. But when the social infrastructure gets degraded, the consequences are unmistakable. People reduce the time they spend in public settings and stay in their “safe houses”. Social networks weaken. Crime rises. Older and sick people grow isolated. Younger people get addicted to drugs and become more vulnerable to lethal overdoses. Distrust rises and civic participation wanes. In rural areas this is possibly not so obvious because younger people are forced to move out due to housing shortages in the area or are in too small a number to be seen  as a threat. The main impact may be unseen behind closed doors.

Even in the “nicer areas” communities are under threat  as the cuts continue and people’s income drops and the available social infrastructure is sold off. The places where connections can be made are gone. Green spaces on their own are not enough if the local community feels they cannot control activities that go on there.

People love the greenery but it is a source of problems, such as kids on motorbikes and antisocial behaviour in the woods. “In the past there used to be wardens and kids clubs and there was always someone responsible there. The open space is unsupervised and part of the discussion is how we create sufficient activities to get over the antisocial behaviour.18

Joseph Rowntree Trusts says  that mental health is shaped by a wide range of characteristics including the social economic and physical environments in which people live. They state the impact of the cuts has resulted in a loss of community resources and facilities and the erosion of social capital due to weakened social networks and reduced social interaction. 19

In  2006, Councils were given a statutory responsibility to explore local issues surrounding community cohesion and put together a tangible local delivery plan for delivering and effectively monitoring projects that bring local people together.  20

To create cohesion in the community several things are needed: a shared vision for a neighbourhood, a strong sense of individual’s responsibilities in an area and clear communication of what is expected of people and what they can expect in turn. There must be a strong sense of trust in local institutions  to act fairly in arbitrating between different interests. A strong  recognition of the contribution of both those who are new to an area and those who already have a deep attachment to a particular place with a focus on what they have in common.  A strong and positive relationship between people in the workplace, in schools and within neighbourhoods.  But the need for protection of community spaces does not seem to be considered as a necessary  component.

To appreciate why this matters, compare the social space of the library with the social space of popular commercial establishments, such as Starbucks or McDonald’s. Commercial entities are valuable parts of the social infrastructure, and there’s no doubt that classic “third places,” including cafes, bars, and restaurants, have helped revitalise cities and suburbs. But not everyone can afford to frequent them, and not all paying customers are welcome to stay for long. Spending time in a market-driven social setting—even a relatively inexpensive fast-food restaurant or pastry shop—requires paying for the privilege  1

Planners looking at urban regeneration are well aware of the need for an asset  place- based approach.  Gorman 21 states that  all neighbourhoods have individual and collective assets that need to be strengthened and enhanced, stressing resident involvement is an important factor. Place based development reflects a growing understanding that local settings present unique factors that can generate positive effects such as creativity and innovation but also negative effects such as feelings of exclusion  leading to loneliness, depression, and even violence.

While it is true that  1.2 million elderly people suffer from chronic loneliness,  there are 9 million people in the UK who are always or often lonely.  Two-fifths (40 per cent) of people aged 16-24 say they feel lonely often or very often, compared to 29 per cent of 65-74-year-olds and 27 per cent of those aged over 75. 22 

Loneliness is not new but we do increasingly recognise it as one of our most pressing public health issues. Feeling lonely often is linked to early deaths – on a par with smoking or obesity. It’s also linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke; depression, cognitive decline and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s. It’s estimated that between 5% and 18% of UK adults feel lonely often or always. , And when we feel socially rejected, it triggers a response in our brain similar to one from experiencing physical pain” 23 

American research has found that elderly people with reduced social contact has a 31% higher  risk of death. The LSE calculated that each older lonely person could cost health and social care services up to £6,000 over 10 years. Lonely older people are 1.8 times more likely to visit their GP, 1.6 times more likely to visit A&E and 3.5 times more likely to enter local authority-funded residential care.24

NHS figures published June 2018 revealed that almost 400,000 children and young people aged 18 and under are in contact with the health service for mental health problems. According to the figures, the number of “active referrals” by GPs in April was a third higher than the same period two years prior. Those seeking help for conditions such as depression and anxiety showed a sharp increase. 25

The rise in mental health problems26  may be coincidental but indications are that children from lower income families are more likely to be isolated with low self esteem and fewer opportunities to socialise outside school.

Almost 25 per cent of children in Sheffield are living in poverty, compared to the UK average of 20 per cent. This varies considerably across the city, with almost 43% of children in Firth Park living in poverty compared to just three per cent in Ecclesall. 27  

Schools are social infrastructures.  For  pupils, teachers, parents, and entire communities, schools can either foster or inhibit trust, solidarity, and a shared commitment to the common good They can also set boundaries that define who is part of the community and who is excluded. They can integrate or segregate, create opportunities or keep people in their place. 1

Under funding has pushed many schools into taking the carrot offered to become academies.  However, continued under funding has pushed many schools into using untrained teachers to try and  fill the gaps. Official government figures show that the number of unqualified teachers has increased by more than 60% to 24,000 since the government removed the requirement for teachers to gain qualifications.28 Demands to perform to national standards despite the lack of qualified teachers has led to record levels of expulsions and cuts to creative subjects in the curriculum. Children from low income households rely on schools for their social interaction and unlike higher income households often don’t have access to social media.

This and the lack of after school clubs and external activities means many children lack social interaction and access to creative learning. This puts the children at a great disadvantage both re social skills and achievement levels . Mental health problems in the young  are rising. Sheffield has the highest rate of expulsions in the country 29 and it can be surely no accident that a rise in violent crime has risen in areas where there are the highest expulsion levels.

The links to youth violence rests on the youth’s perception on the degree of safety, social stability and social cohesion that exists within the immediate community. The location that a  youth lives in can influence the extent to which they experience both mental health and violent outcomes. In other words the young  need a strong social infrastructure too.16

The attacks have left Haigh and others scrambling for answers. Many of those involved in the violence are believed to be youngsters not previously associated with serious crime. “That’s what is most alarming about it,” said Haigh. “It’s people connected with very low-level criminal activity, or not connected with any criminal activity at all.” Dianne Hurst, a Labour city councillor on the Woodthorpe estate, said some of those involved were “from nice families … they aren’t those that you would expect to see in trouble”.30

Research shows the need for a community that is active and where  people are liable to bump into each other through the day to day activities, such as libraries, child centres, and workplace.  Libraries throughout the UK have closed  or had their services reduced.  In Sheffield although there have not been as many closures as in other authorities,31 sixteen libraries have become volunteer run.  Activities in the volunteer Libraries vary considerably from Library to Library but all are run on restricted opening hours  compared to previously.32  This apart from social interaction is problematic as it also limits access to a computer and the chance to study in a quieter setting after school than home may be.  It is obvious looking at the individual websites that the libraries lack the previous uniformity that happened under a professionally run Library service. With the cuts in Sure Start and other child centres and the neighbourhood school often no longer in the neighbourhood, the working men’s club closed down, the church re-purposed and the local pub boarded up, where is the social interaction going to happen? Even the local post office has gone from many areas.

The Therapeutic Value of Heritage.

Development banks like the World Bank have missions that go beyond profit to include “reducing poverty” and “promoting shared prosperity.” For many communities, wellbeing and prosperity are defined, in part, by an active connection to their cultural and spiritual heritage, often tied to geographic sites. 33

Public buildings that have a long history have an advantage that newer buildings without a history haven’t. It gives older people a chance to talk about their experiences to the young  and makes social interaction easier. Most older public buildings are geographically central to the community. The history and appearance gives the area an identity that is unique to their area.

Grenoside reading room.JPG

Grenoside Reading Room restored from derelict now  at the heart of the community

While  ‘therapeutic’ experiences are being found in the reviews of the heritage funding bodies such as Historic England and Heritage Lottery Fund, till recently they  have largely been absent in health geography literature or more widely within public health promotion literature. The positive experiences have been seen more as educational or in terms of economic regeneration, as an introduction to history, meeting other like-minded people and seeing wider community connections grow. But it became obvious that there were obvious benefits from using a person’s love of history and place, to boost their sense of belonging, cultural identity and security.  34

Heritage conservation is by its very nature about generating a closer relationship with one’s local area. Geographers have long explored the beneficial effects of having a strong sense of place and belonging.  Perceptions of places can be influenced by personal experiences and memories, the length of time spent living in a particular area, as well as awareness of historical significance for example, drawing on research on Wigan Pier, Northern England, demonstrates the active nature of heritage consumption, as visitors draw upon their memories and biographies to validate the interpretation of exhibits. Community-based heritage conservation is also by its very nature driven by the coming together of members of the community who participate in forms of voluntarism.

Sheffield council have the foresight of a myopic mayfly, the self awareness of a pebble and couldn’t plan their way out of a plastic bag. Time and again they have had the opportunity to do something great in this wonderful city, chances to make something of its people, location, history and atmosphere and time and again they have thrown the chances away.”  35 (comment by member of public in paper)

It is obvious from public protests at the loss of historic buildings that heritage matters to ordinary people. In a dispute about protecting the character of the Devonshire Quarter in Sheffield over 11,000 people signed an online petition and demonstrations were held outside the Town Hall.

But the cuts in funding  have made planning committees nervous to take on big developers due to possible high court costs if the developer challenges their decision in the court. In Sheffield there are approximately 120-130 Heritage groups and organisations. There are several hundred events a year which is a clear indicator that people’ heritage and culture matters to them. Many organisations have several hundred members and have been around for over thirty years. But recent pressure from government planning policies and the local authority’s desire to regenerate areas and create new business opportunities means that sometimes important assets are lost.

Urban planners and private sector property developers are increasingly prioritising top-down ‘master planning’ of the community. Top down planning often ignores the existing structures within a community.  Residents within acutely declining areas face an increasingly precarious future. Many developers argue for old buildings to be cleared for regeneration.  But clean sweep solutions are immensely damaging to community ties, costly and therefore impossible to implement in the several thousand acutely declining neighbourhoods in the UK.  There is an anger and a bitterness  within the displaced people that does not seem to shift with time, creating wistful community web pages where former neighbours connect and reminisce. 14

Holding onto people, developing micro-initiatives within neighbourhoods, restoring, beautifying and upgrading  areas is a greener and more realistic alternative than the large-scale disruption of past and often current urban regeneration programmes.

Across the industrial Midlands and the North there is a push to show  modern forward thinking cities and developers are encouraged to build large shiny towers to give that image.  However research has shown that modern companies often prefer an old building as it gives a sense of longevity and security, and people like the character the older buildings give to an area whether in rural or urban districts. Even in rural areas the push for more housing can put ancient areas at risk.  Bad planning decisions are not only economically damaging but also damaging to health and wellbeing of a community.  Heritage is part of the anchorage of a community when the upheavals of factory, pit, quarry  or farm closures have left communities with a feeling of loss.

A review of population-based research on mortality risk over the last 20 years indicates that people who are isolated are at increased mortality risk from a number of causes. More recent studies indicate that social support is particularly related to survival postmyocardial infarction. The pathways that lead from such socioenvironmental exposures to poor health outcomes are likely to be multiple and include behavioural mechanisms and more direct physiologic pathways related to neuroendocrine or immunologic function. For social support to be health promoting, it must provide both a sense of belonging and intimacy and must help people to be more competent and self-efficacious. Acknowledging that health promotion rests on the shoulders not only of individuals but also of their families and communities means that we must commit resources over the next decade to designing, testing, and implementing interventions in this area36

According to research carried out by English Heritage for their annual Heritage Counts 37 report, visiting  heritage sites has a significant and positive impact on life satisfaction and visits to historic  towns and buildings were found to have the greatest impact on wellbeing.  The report also calculates the value of these visits in financial terms and estimates the impact as being worth some £1646 per person per year, meaning visiting heritage is better for your wellbeing and life satisfaction than similar participation in sport. How much is heritage on the doorstep worth to the local community in health and wellbeing? Or to put it another way how much more demand is there on healthcare and other services when local heritage has been sold off?

There would seem to be a disjoint between those who are looking for finance to improve health in the community and cut crime and those who think finance from the sale of community assets especially heritage assets is a good way of bringing in finance for these preventive health schemes without looking at the hidden costs of removing these buildings from use.

One problem is there has been no clear value placed on such heritage assets from a health and crime reduction point of view so it is hard  to compare the monetary value with the community value. Too often community protests against demolition or change of use of a community asset is seen as nimbyism or backward looking by local authorities. There is need for more research in this field.

Cultural Elitism

There must be an urgency, now, to help disenfranchised communities of all different types express their identity, to celebrate their history, to see themselves as belonging to part of a bigger picture, and this must include a refocusing on the working classes: their art, their stories, their being able to progress through the artistic professions as easily as their privileged counterparts. The idea that the working class might have their own cultural identity too often gets dismissed, and that creates a void. And that’s the void that’s currently being filled by the far right across western democracies.” 38

 Article 27 of the Universal declaration of Human Rights states “Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.39

Despite many acknowledging that the heritage and culture of the North is distinctive yet there seems to be very little effort to preserve that culture either locally or nationally.  Funding for culture and heritage from central government and funding bodies has never been high in comparison to elsewhere in the United Kingdom.  Is this because of the geography or because a lot of northern heritage in need of funding is about works and workers?

Sheffield’s Core Strategy 40states the objective of preserving and enhancing buildings and areas that are attractive, distinctive or of heritage value. But what is of heritage value? Historic England 41talking of listing buildings cites that for a building to be listed it has to be of a specific architectural,  historic interest of national importance. This has meant that much of the industrial areas found themselves battling without national support for their prominent industrial buildings. Industrial archaeology was and still is very much the poor relation, even in Sheffield where modern Industrial archaeology was born in 1918 with the Sheffield Technical Societies 42at Sheffield University. Recently the Government granted £7.6m to Wentworth Woodhouse whereas most grants through the Heritage Lottery fund rarely reach the £1m level in South Yorkshire.43

Volunteering in Heritage Lottery funded  projects44 would appear to be mainly a white elderly middle income activity though there are exceptions.   Is that because many of the applications for funding are made by the same groups or because their application is more likely to succeed?

Sarah Hughes 45drew attention in her paper  to the problems of definition of what culture means in the national press.  They define good arts provision to mean how much choice there is in theatre, cinema, concert halls and museums in the immediate vicinity failing  to look at culture in a local context.  The orchestral tuba player and the brass band tuba player  as musicians even if of equal ability are regarded differently,  but one is regarded as playing in high cultural events, the other as a hobbyist.  Ballet is regarded as culture, whereas Morris dancing is often regarded by many as a joke.

Civil War mix Manor Lodge

Manor Lodge, after decades of struggle now a popular destination.

The ‘official’ model of participation remains a top-down affair, operationalised as a demarcated set of activities and practices, defined largely by what government has traditionally funded, and informed by middle class norms and understandings of what counts as ‘legitimate’ culture.’ He suggests, ‘from this perspective, the ‘nonusers’ of culture can, in turn, be construed as a social problem: a passive, isolated and inadequate group morally adrift from the mainstream and therefore in need of mobilisation.’45

Areas like Castleford have to legitimize their cultural heritage from mining by emphasizing their Roman Heritage and Barnsley adding  stately homes such as Wentworth Castle to legitimate their heritage. This  comes from a mixture of local perception that an industrial heritage is inferior and what national funders will financially back. It has led perhaps to many cash strapped councils discounting any heritage that cannot bring in funding.

National survey data 46 for England shows that even in 2010, before the main impact of austerity, community organisations in the coalfields were more likely to report that they had insufficient overall income to meet their objectives. Cuts in local authority funding in England have hit deprived areas disproportionately hard. Across the country as a whole, the density of voluntary organisations in deprived areas is anyway far lower than in more prosperous areas.

Central Government spending per head on culture in London was nearly fifteen times greater than in the rest of England,  and successive governments and Arts Council England 47 continually  fail to redress the balance between London and the regions. In 2013  51% of ACE’s £322m public funding budget was spent on London, and of the further £450m used by the DCMS to direct-fund 16 major cultural organisations, an estimated 90% went to London.48  As a result, Londoners benefited from £69 of cultural spending per head, compared with just £4.50 in the rest of England. In addition, ACE committed 45% of its £317m arts lottery funding to London, meaning  arts funding in London was  £17.41 per person in London, but only £3.90 in the rest of England.49 In 2018 it was found that for the north to get the same Arts Council England funding per head as the capital it would need £691m more in the 2018-22 funding round.

And the same shortfall is within the Heritage Lottery funding50 .   Since the lottery began, the cumulative loss of funding to Britain’s industrial communities has probably been around £3bn, or £200m a year. In the last five years, communities in industrial Britain received only around 60 per cent of the national average per head. This has been made even worse by the HLF’s bias towards North Yorkshire and its rural communities and churches51.  

Sheffield is composed of distinct neighbourhoods with their own cultural identity. This cultural identity has been one of Sheffield’s great strengths helping people to feel part of a community.  With the closure of the pits, many works and  dairy farms, communities are left feeling disenfranchised .

Power to the People

In England  85%  of councils were making cuts to public health budgets in 2018/19. In Sheffield the Council cut its budget by £880,000.52  In  January 2018 Sheffield Council predicted an overspend of £20m in their social care budget.53 All the community properties put together and sold would make only a small dent in the health and social care budgets.

A look at what is happening in present and past publicly owned properties would suggest that community asset transfer could not only save the council money on running costs and repairs but that community involvement would also bring about community cohesion, improved mental health, reduction in loneliness, amongst other things.  It is obvious however that extra funding to repair and restore a building so communities are able to concentrate on making the building pay is not easy to find. Despite the problems community run assets do well. A sample of properties previously or currently owned by the council  show an amazing breadth of activities that add to the local community and that did not happen while under council control.  Here are a few examples.

Friends of Meersbrook Park 54 have calculated that a potential community asset transfer of Meersbrook Hall by the Council, the council would make an annual revenue savings of more than £65m from removing their need to maintain and heat the building, and further savings in staff time, administration and unforeseen costs such as damage repair. After repairs and restoration is carried out the building will also go up significantly in value. Add to that its present use working with local schools, Workers Education classes, and IT classes plus a number of public events it is already doing and a wide range of suggested activities when restored including commercial and community use. In fact they save considerably more money by the transfer than the original projected sale price.

De Hood

At Manor Top, 55 an old school, has been taken over as a community gym and has  in six years gone from a boxing gym to also running a cafe and various keep fit activities such as dancing and football, as well as a recovery drop in centre for addicts and a drugs and rehabilitation centre. The crime rate is down 60%,  arson has halved and has a membership of 500 people of all ages who are now healthier and happier. The savings to emergency services, social services and health services must be quite phenomenal in an area that was previously an area known for criminal and anti-social behaviour. Yet the site is to be sold to create a new shopping centre. There is a suggestion that a new place could be found for them but that would cost money and it is doubtful the sale of the old school will provide the finance for a new club as well as the old school being in the centre of the community that anywhere else would not be. There is also an obvious strong community link that will not be there in a bright shiny building if they do actually get one.

Grenoside Reading Room 56

Built around 1790 as an endowed school the building had fallen into disrepair and in 2006 the ownership of the building passed from the parish council to the residents of Grenoside. It took 6 years to get HLF funding to fully repair and restore the building. It became Grenoside’s first listed building and though small is very much in the heart of the community with a wide range of activities and community events including a rehearsal room for the Grenoside Sword dancers, and a lunchtime cafe once a week.

Heeley Development Trust 57

In 1997, having raised funding, the Trust took ownership of 3.5 hectares of land on a 125-year lease from Sheffield City Council. HDT have been delivering youth, community, environmental and economic development projects in the Heeley area since then including: – Heeley People’s Park,  Sum Studios  (a grade II listed Victorian school) redeveloped as a managed work space with 46 creative business tenants  Recycle Bikes – a social enterprise supporting disengaged young people to gain training, confidence, work experience and jobs.  The Trust is also working in partnership with the Friends of Meersbrook Hall to revitalise the hall and reopen it to the public  and providing within the hall an Online Centre  which offers free drop-in computer and internet access, as well as formal training in ‘Computers for Beginners’, digital imaging, spreadsheets, etc. HDT employs 32 staff across the above projects.

Burton Street Foundation 58

Burton Street Foundation began in 1998 in an historic board  school like Sum Studio but unlike HDT the community was no longer centred there but nevertheless the foundations contribution to the community especially those with disabilities is phenomenal. Around 2500 people use the site every week, for work and for play. They host countless events each year and  employ around 140 people. Their  disability services have around 250 clients. 14 local businesses are based there, and around 35 charities and community groups use their facilities each week. They now  run and maintain 5 buildings across 3 sites as well as a getaway in Wales too. They have a bistro, a cafe, a recording studio, a gym, conference facilities and offices for hire.

Heeley City Farm 59

Heeley City Farm took over land that the council owned after a failed bypass had left them with cleared land and no money to do anything with it. The Farm grew organically over the years from its early days with a shed and £25 in the bank, and soon became a well-loved part of the Heeley landscape providing beautiful green spaces and education, employment and training opportunities.

Heeley City Farm is now a well established community, not- for- profit charity and visitor attraction based on a working farm a mile from Sheffield City centre. Staff and volunteers from Heeley City Farm work with young people, adults with learning disabilities and with local communities across Sheffield to promote regeneration, environmental education, energy efficiency and health and well-being. Horticulture trainees, staff and volunteers also manage several  organic vegetable gardens across the city.  The  last remaining terraced house on the Farm site has been eco –refurbished and now houses South Yorkshire Energy Centre, an interactive visitor and advice centre open to the public.  Their Community Heritage Department has been delivering high quality community heritage, archaeology and history projects across the city since 2008.

Gillfield Wood60

The land is mostly owned by the council but in 2011 a Friends Group took over the maintenance and now has up to 100 volunteers. Besides conservation they have recorded1,600 species. The Friends group hosts a conservation morning once a month coppicing trees, relaying paths and mending dry stone walling. They created a pond, a wildflower meadow and opened up a glade to let sunlight in for butterflies and insects and there are 60 nesting boxes. There are several walks about a mile long and they run events for the community and for families during the year including bird walks, a history walk, one about flowers and fungi in the autumn and a mammal survey.

Within many communities across the UK there are historic buildings that the community wants to keep. Those they get to keep have a head start re community enthusiasm and possibly because they aren’t the local authority running it they come up with a wide range of ideas to keep the buildings running at capacity.

97% of the community organisations Locality 61 surveyed said that the community asset transfer had strengthened their relationship with the local community. 52%also highlighted a strengthened relationship with other public agencies as a key benefit. 58% of community organisations we surveyed reported that their relationship with the local authority had been strengthened by the process of community ownership. 70% of local authorities either agreed or strongly agreed that the process had enhanced partnership working with local voluntary and community sector groups. 75% reported an increase in more effective community engagement.

What is also clear from the examples given that community assets can help create jobs, training opportunities and give support to some of the most vulnerable and marginalised sections of the community. Despite the obvious lack of funding  some have been running for over 20 years.

Many councils now are looking at setting up community anchors or hubs to  tackle the root causes of inequality and to  create a  highly-localised service.  At the same time councils are selling off the community buildings already there and often displacing the community organisations they say they want to work with. It’s hard to tackle loneliness in an area where there is no place to meet. Or set up training for people where it involves expensive buses to get to the training place.

A recent YouGov poll commissioned by Locality found that 71% of people felt they had not much or no control over the important decisions that affected their neighbourhoods and local communities. With more community buildings being sold off that percentage is going to rise.


  1. Klinenberg Eric (2018) Palaces for the People: How to Build a More Equal and United Society, Siddique Haroon (2018) Thousands of public buildings and spaces in England sold off a year, The Guardian
  2. BBC Wales (2017) 110 Anglican churches closed in 10 years.
  3. Burn Chris (2016) One quarter of south Yorkshire’s working men’s clubs lost in last decade Sheffield Star
  4. BBC News (2018) Pubs closing at rate of 18 a week as people stay at home
  5. Crown Publishing Group
  6. Price David (2008)Sheffield Troublemakers, Phillimore & Co. Ltd
  7. Brabin Tracy (2018) More than 500 children’s centres have closed in England since 2010
  8. Presser Lizzie (2016) Disadvantaged teenagers left isolated as clubs and holiday camps are closed
  9. O’Hara Mary (2018) young people’s mental health is a ‘worsening crisis’ Action is needed
  10. BBC (2018) School exclusions: Are more children being expelled? Reality Check Team
  11. Booth Roberts (2018) unsustainable villages risk being frozen in time say landowners
  12. Vesty Helena (2018) Unreliable public transport ‘stops poor families finding work’
  13. Sheffield City Partnership Board (2018) State of Sheffield 2018
  14. Power Ann, Wilson Julius (2000) Social Exclusion and the Future of Cities, CASE paper 35 Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, Houghton Street London wc2A 2AE
  15. Joseph Rowntree Trust (2007) Experiences of poverty and educational disadvantage
  16. McMurtry Roy, Curling Alvin (2008)  The review of the roots of youth violence Vol 1 Ontario Service Ontario Publications 777 Bay Street, Market Level Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C8
  17. Klinenberg Eric (2002) Heat Wave; A Social autopsy of disaster in Chicago, The University of Chicago Press
  18. Ashton Lucy (2018) Latest ideas on developing Sheffield Estate
  19. Elliott, I. (June 2016) Poverty and Mental Health: A review to inform the Joseph Rowntree Foundation’s Anti-Poverty Strategy. London: Mental Health Foundation
  20. TME (2018) Culture and Community Cohesion Partnership Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council
  21. Gorman, C. (2007) Final Reflections from the Action for Neighbourhood Change Research Project The Caledon Institute of Social Policy, Toronto
  22. Hosie Rachel (2018) Young people feel lonelier than any other age group, largest study into loneliness reveals
  23. HM Government (2018) A connected society, A strategy for tackling loneliness-laying the foundations for change, Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport 100 Parliament Street London SW1A 2BQ
  24. Morrison Janet (2018) Social Isolation should be a public health priority.
  25. Eyre David (2016) Poor Mental Health, the links between child poverty and mental problems The Childrens Society
  26. Donovan Francesca (2018) The loneliness epidemic among young people need to be tackled by government
  27. Ashton Lucy (2018) Community Cohesion: Sheffielders living in poverty and isolation have a tougher life.
  28. Syal Rajeev (2017) More than 600,000 pupils in England taught by unqualified teachers
  29. Cooper Sam (2018) Staggering number of school exclusions across Sheffield revealed.
  30. Halliday Josh (2018) Police in Sheffield grapple with surge in violent crime.
  31. Cain Sean (2018) Nearly 130 public libraries closed across Britain in the last year
  32. Volunteer Libraries in Sheffield
  33. Luciana Olivia (2017) Preserving People’s Cultural Heritage is a Crucial Part of Development Blog Post CIEL Centre for International Environmental Law
  34. Power A, Smith K (2016) Heritage, health and place: the legacies of local community-based heritage conservation University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
  35. Collier Hatty (2014) Sheffield residents fight plans to bulldoze independent shops.
  36. Fisher Brian, Neve Hilary, Heritage Zoe, (1999)  Community development, user involvement and primary health care BMJ Medical Publishing Company
  37. Historic England (2014) Heritage Counts 2014: The Value and Impact of Heritage
  38. McMillan Andrew (2017) The Working class has its own cultural identity
  39. Silverman Helaine, Fairchild D Ruggles (2007) Cultural Heritage and Human Rights, University of Illinois
  40. Sheffield City Council (2013) Sheffield Plan Consultation, pre submission
  41. Historic Englands (2018) Listed buildings, listing what is designation definition of a listed building
  42. South Yorkshire Industrial History Society (formerly Sheffield Trades Historical Society
  43. Doughty Eleanor (2018) Wentworth Woodhouse reveals its £130m renovation masterplan
  44. HLF (2008) Social Impact of Heritage Lottery Funded Projects, Heritage Lottery Fund
  45. Hughes Sarah (2018) Understanding Cultural Participation in Barnsley, Phd thesis, University of Leicester
  46. Foden Mike, Fothergill Steve, Gore Tony (2014) The state of the coalfield’s economics in the former mining communities of England, Scotland and Wales, Centre for Regional and Social Research Sheffield Hallam University
  1. Marsh Sarah (2017) Arts funding: £700m needed to bridge north-south divide, study finds,
  2. Arts Council (2013) Expenditure data for Arts Council, Arts Council
  3. Romer Marcus (2013) How Arts Funding works on the ground
  4. Industrial Communities Alliance (2011) The Postcode Lottery, How the National Lottery short-changes Britain’s industrial communities, Alliance National Secretariat 9 Regents Street, Barnsley, South Yorkshire S70 2E
  5. Heritage Lottery Fund (2018) Figures taken from Project Search
  6. Torr George (2018) Social Care in growing ’financial crisis’ as Sheffield Council bosses reveal massive £20m overspend
  7. Yorkshire Post (2018) Leeds hit hardest as council health budgets in Yorkshire and Humber ’cut by £8m’
  8. Friends of Meersbrook Hall
  9. De Hood
  10. Grenoside Reading Room
  11. HDT (2018) Heeley Development Trust Case Study, Power to Change, Business in Community hands. Heritage Lottery Fund
  12. Burton Street Foundation
  13. Heeley City Farm

61. Plummer John (2018) Locality urges councils to transfer assets to communities, not flog them off. Third Sector

So long and thanks for all the fish?

When I started Timewalk project I said I would give it 5 years and that 5 years is up now, so time to take stock. I have enjoyed myself and sometimes ended up way beyond my comfort zone giving interviews and talks and writing reports. There are a lot of amazing people out there, but I knew that when I started as that was my main aim was to champion them. There has been some great achievements and some great things in the pipeline but are the powers that be really aware of the great unique  heritage that is round every corner in this city?


Sheffield Rotherham Canal 200 years old in 2019.


I started looking at ways of promoting heritage after reading a letter sent by the Arts Council that stated Sheffield wasn’t interested in Heritage or Culture. I couldn’t understand how they reached that conclusion,  but looking at the Council’s website gave me a clue, as well as looking at Google maps. According to Google Cannon Hall was in Meersbrook Park, and Bishops House not even in the park and somewhere  along the road. This wasn’t  helped by the fact that the Council website listed Bishops House as being in Derbyshire.  Of the Top 10 places to visit on the Council website 3 were not in Sheffield. The information suggested too that the Peak District National Park started outside Sheffield Boundaries not that part was actually within city boundaries.  Manor Lodge despite its brand new Discovery Centre and craft workshops was not even mentioned.

Manor Lodge Tower

Manor Lodge Banqueting Tower.

I remember asking a Councillor why the Council didn’t promote places like Manor Lodge and was told they were short of money. I asked how much money it took to add an entry to their website.  I didn’t get an answer so maybe that is why the Arts Council felt Sheffield wasn’t interested in Heritage.

Advertising for Heritage events was poor partly due to the fact that many organisations didn’t have an online presence, or if they did it was frequently a website that someone forgot to update. The list of organisations was also problematic as some that were still listed had closed and others had formed but weren’t listed. The only way to get any idea was to go to the Central Library and pick up leaflets and then either scan them in or write out an add. As I found more leaflets it got really time consuming as so much had to be typed in to a calendar of events. It was a great relief when more groups started on Facebook and on Twitter.  As I could just click and forward to my page or retweet.


Art Deco relief on Central Library

When I started not only did people not know of events in the city centre, they didn’t know of events in their neighbourhood.  As we started mapping old buildings across Sheffield and researching them it became obvious that Sheffield history books miss out a lot, and are downright wrong in some places. Even some of the listed buildings are dated wrongly and often older than Historic England says they are. Many pubs that are listed as Victorian are Georgian. Many important historical buildings have gone because there was not enough research into their importance or consideration for the historic character of an area.


Le Grand Depart, Le tour de France Meadowhall

The Grand Depart in 2014 was a game changer for Sheffield’s heritage in a variety of ways. The  Yorkshire Festival which led up to Le Tour meant many organisations got funding and advertising. Organisations such as Friends of Porter Valley, Friends of Wincobank , Sheffield Cathedral and Museums Sheffield.  But what also occurred  to everybody was the lost opportunities to market Sheffield to the world that could have happened if Sheffield had been more coordinated. A chance meeting with a Council officer from marketing led to an offer of a meeting room where several heritage groups could get together. This was the birth of Joined up Heritage, which is now a Consortium .


The Council has a Welcome to Sheffield site which lists some of the Heritage sites and events. It also recently began to list some Heritage venues suitable for conferences. There is more to be done but things have really moved on in 5 years though sometimes when you think of the distance still to go it’s easy to forget the triumphs.

We have the beautiful  restored Samuel Worth Chapel at the general cemetery, Grenoside Reading Room, significant Roman  archaeology at Whirlow Farm, the buying and restoration of Zion cemetery, the restoration of the Wheel at Abbeydale plus new visitors centre, the opening of the WW2 farm at Manor Lodge, Lyceum Theatre upgraded, both Cathedrals, the Fire and Police station now a National Museum with hugely expanded visitor numbers, and the amazing Wadsend Cemetery which from unknown is on every Councillor’s lips.   Events that used to have a couple of people and a dog now have to ticket events because otherwise they are over capacity.

Bluebell Wardsend Cemetery

Wardsend Cemetery in Springtime.

Heritage Open Day,  that previously had one entry if we were lucky, has turned into the biggest HOD event in the country. It has brought together businesses grassroots heritage the Civic Society and the Universities in one great collaborative expression of our heritage. It has also had an impact outside Sheffield in that not only does it bring in visitors it has inspired other places to organise their own HOD. Sheffield’s heritage is very definitely back on the map.

However some of the same problems remain. Arts and Lottery funding is lower for Sheffield than elsewhere. Developers are still being allowed to encroach on Conservation areas with disastrous results. Some ancient buildings have been lost, an old farm cottage in Tinsley, an old barn in Walkley, the old dairy farmyard and cow stalls  at Norton, Loxley Chapel, Travellers at  Wadsley Bridge, to name but a few. Many more are planned  to be cleared, facaded or totally eclipsed by the plans for retailing in the City Centre, even though Major retailers are failing every week or abandoning  their presence in the high street. Community assets are being sold by the Council and others are being left to rot by absentee owners from outside the city.


Old Town Hall

There has to be a plan drawn up to protect and conserve and utilise our unique heritage, and an understanding by Sheffield Council and businesses why it is important to the economic and community health of the city. It isn’t about a group of elderly men grumbling in the corner about how things used to be, or turning every old building into a museum. It’s about a pride in our history and the way our city developed. It’s about walking round the corner and seeing an unusual building and having a great coffee there. It’s about  a tourist or a worker feeling what’s special about the city and being literally in touch with the past. No tourist wants to visit a brand new skyscraper that blots out the view of what’s unique, or go shopping in shops that only have the facade left. They want to feel what it was like to be a shopper there in the past.  Give them a bland shiny interior and it is just the same as they get at home in a thousand other cities.


There has to be a plan on how we present our history to locals and tourists alike, but no point having a plan, if an important landmark  that tells so much of the story is demolished to make way for empty office blocks or empty student flats.  No point in saying that is where it used to be, before they put a shop on it and then knocked that down, and now there is an empty building that no one uses or particularly likes. Let’s think about what the place will look like after it’s gone and realistically whether losing it will help or hinder how we market our city. Let’s not replace that which has lasted for 100s of years with something that will be demolished in 30 after many years of crumbling to bits. Let’s use the old buildings to tell our city’s story past, present and future.  It’s a history to be proud of. Not hidden or swept away. Yes it looks messy and has several different styles of architecture and many buildings have changed use several time over but that is how city’s grow and evolve, keeping the useful older buildings, and adding in new to the mix.


Cambridge Street, Bethel Sunday School

So do I stop now and leave it to others and go back to my research in the various archives? It’s very tempting as my life has been very busy over the last few years. I certainly need to change my website as it has developed a contrary life of its own. As for filling out the events calendar with over 2’000 events a year I am finding it hard to keep up. Photographing historic sites is a bit like painting the Forth Road Bridge in fact even worse as before I have got to the end places that I photographed at the beginning need updating.  Entries to my blogs are spasmodic  and don’t have as many guest posts as I would have liked. Likewise the photos on my Facebook pages now featuring a proto Timewalk Rotherham site. Recent research into the owners of Meersbrook Hall has proved fascinating and I’d like to do more.

Samuel Shore by Chantry

Samuel Shore Meersbrook Hall

But despite my original promise to myself to give it 5 years and walk away there is so much to be done re promoting Sheffield’s heritage and the communities it is important to. Plus I don’t think the Council and the National funders have got the message yet. I  think that all the heritage lovers in our city still need to have their voices heard so for now I will continue passing on their messages.

Happy New Year

Losing Heritage damages your health.

Birley Spa

Birley Spa Community owned building due for sale in 2019

Losing publicly owned heritage buildings is not only economically damaging but also damaging to the health and well being of a community. Heritage is part of the anchorage of a community when the upheavals of factory, pit, or farm closures have left communities with a feeling of loss. 

Mount Pleasant

Mount Pleasant Sharrow. One of Sheffield’s most prestigious buildings sold by SCC to private developer despite alternative community scheme.


English councils are selling off 400 publicly owned buildings a year. To add to that are closures of churches, working men’s clubs, and local pubs. For those on lower income public spaces and buildings are the only places they can afford to use. In the case of historic buildings and sites it also incorporates a history of ordinary people like themselves that goes back generations.

Civil War mix Manor Lodge

Manor Lodge, after decades of struggle now a popular destination.


Children growing up in social housing are more likely to suffer from depression and poor self esteem than children from families in same income and same hardships who live elsewhere. Research has found that lonely elderly people have a 31% higher  risk of death, and that each older lonely person costs health and social care services up to £6,000 over 10 years. They are 1.8 times more likely to visit their GP, 1.6 times more likely to visit A&E and 3.5 times more likely to enter local authority-funded residential care. But it is not just the elderly who suffer from loneliness, 40% of 16-24 years olds say they feel lonely. 400,000 children and young people are in contact with the health service for mental health problems. The number of “active referrals” by GPs is a third higher than two years previously. There is a sharp increase in children seeking help for depression and anxiety.

Herdings Heritage Centre

Herdings Heritage & Community centre. Originally farmhouse


If people have nowhere to meet as a community, people grow more isolated, more anxious. People stay indoors, and areas begin to show neglect and there is a rise in vandalism, racism and violent crime. Sheffield has a lot of great green spaces but in housing estates like Gleadless Valley

Since the removal of wardens and kids clubs the area has become litter strewn and prone to anti-social behaviour. 

Concorde Barn and House

Ancient cruck barn & farmhouse Concorde Park. Age unknown but medieval site. Barn not open to public as used as store

At Manor Top,  DeHood has taken over the old school as a community gym, and cafe, as well as  being a drop in centre for recovering addicts.  The crime rate is down 60%,  arson has halved. The savings to emergency services, social services and health services must be quite substantial  Yet the site is to be sold to create a new shopping centre. There is a suggestion that a new place could be found but part of the success of the club is the building’s strong historic links to the community.

High Hazels Hall

High Hazels hall. Once used as museum now in poor repair & only partially used in High Hazels Park

Public buildings that have a long history have an advantage that newer buildings without a history haven’t. It gives older people a chance to talk about their experiences to the young  and builds up trust. Most older public buildings are geographically as well as emotionally central to the community. The history and appearance gives the area an identity that is unique to their area.  

The loss of historic buildings matters to ordinary people. Over 11’000 people signed a petition about protecting the character of the Devonshire Quarter in Sheffield.  In Sheffield there are approximately 130 Heritage groups and organisations. Many organisations have several hundred members and have been around for over thirty years. Feelings run deep in Sheffield but finding a similar response from National heritage organisations and funders is prone to failure.


Our heritage and culture has the lowest level of funding in the country. It was found that for the north to get the same Arts Council England funding per head as the capital it would need £691m more in the 2018-22 funding round, and HLF funding is not only lower in Yorkshire than elsewhere it is lower in South Yorkshire than it is in the rural Yorkshire dales. Research would suggest that this is down to a National and local cultural snobbery.  Recently the Government granted £7.6m to Wentworth Woodhouse whereas most grants through the Heritage Lottery fund rarely reach the £1m level in South Yorkshire. It is hard to get funding for “working class” northern heritage. Perhaps that is why the Council had no active plan for protecting and utilising buildings like Birley Spa, or Meersbrook Hall, and the medieval Concorde barn is used as a store, and instead of accepting the community based plan for Mount Pleasant it was sold to a private developer. Most of our prominent heritage buildings are there due to pressure by local groups such as the Lyceum, Abbeydale Hamlet, Kelham Island Museum, Bishops House, Wincobank church, and the General Cemetery to name but a few.    

Abbeydale Dam with crucible stack visible

Abbeydale Hamlet, Gifted by Greaves to the city, after decades left to rot was restored.


Sheffield Council cut its preventative health budget by £880,000 for 2018/19.  In  January 2018 Sheffield Council predicted an overspend of £20m in their social care budget. All the community properties put together, sold  and put into the Council’s coffers would only make a slight dent in one year’s  required income. How many £m would they save over the years by transferring them to the community rent free?  Birley Spa has an asking price of £70’000. How much will it cost the community and health services to see it go, rather than put it back into community use?

Meersbrook Hall HOD

Meersbrook Hall, once home to Internationally famous Ruskin Museum


Friends of Meersbrook Park  have calculated that a community asset transfer of Meersbrook Hall  would save the Council £65m per annum by removing their need to maintain and heat the building, and further savings in staff time, administration and unforeseen costs such as damage repair.


The tenacity of heritage groups in Sheffield is amazing. It took 6 years for the Grenoside community to get HLF funding to fully repair and restore the 18th century reading room, but meanwhile they continued cleaning out the rubbish and landscaping round the building. As Grenoside’s 1st listed building it has brought back a sense of community and gave them space for their community. 

Grenoside reading room

Grenoside Reading Room now community owned and run.

Our communities have to be the primary focus of any Council’s planning decisions, especially if their decisions may result in the loss of our culture and impact on our health and well being.